With Hafenskipper 2 you can configure many characteristics of the ship models. You can match the ship models to match a specific ship or experiment and understand the influence of the ship characteristics. The following settings are available:
|1.1 Power||Single engine power||kW|
|1.2 Mass||Mass of the ship||Kg|
|1.3 Engine Type||The engine types you can choose depend on the ship selected.|
– Outboard motor, single or twin engine
– Stationary shaft, single or twin engine
– Sail drive
|1.4 Rudder||Number of rudders|
|1.5 Propeller Rotation||Single Engine: Right hand / left hand|
Twin engine: Inwards / outwards
|1.6 Prop Walk||Strength of propeller walk||%|
|1.7 Rudder Size||Increased rudder size means greater rudder forces. This parameter only influences the rudder force due to the speed through the water.||%|
|1.8 Prop Wash||Strength of the rudder forces due to propeller wash.||%|
|1.9 Max. Rudder Angle||Maximum rudder deflection angle to left and to right side.||°|
|1.10 Steering Wheel Translation||Translation between steering wheel and rudder angle.||1|
|1.11 Moment of Inertia (Yaw)||Kg * m²|
|1.12 Power Bow Thruster||kW|
|1.13 Wind Resistance||Resistance of the ship to cross winds. Resistance to head wind is changed proportional.||%|
|1.14 Wind Center of Effort||Longitudinal offset of the center of effort for side wind.||m|
|1.15 Size of Lateral plan||Size of the lateral projection of the underwater ship.||%|
|1.16 Center of Lateral Resistance||Longitudinal offset||m|
When percent (%) is stated as the unit, the parameter is adjusted relative to the standard value for each individual ship. In the following you can find an explanation of all parameters in detail:
This parameter sets the main engine power. With a twin-engine ship this sets the power of a single engine.
The mass of the ship can be adjusted within reasonable limits.
1.3 Engine type
Choose the engine type depending on the selected ship:
- Outboard motor, single or twin engine
- Stationary shaft drive, single or twin engine
- Sail drive
Choose between one or two rudders for some ship models. To steer the ship at low speeds you can take advantage of the propeller wash. For this, the number of rudders should match the number of propellers. Otherwise the propeller wash does not hit the rudders.
1.5 Propeller Rotation
Configure the rotation direction of the propellers. Choose between right-handed and left-handed propellers. For a twin engine ship the propellers usually have opposite directions. In this case you can also choose inward or outward rotation.
A right-handed propeller turns clockwise when driving forward, as seen from behind the ship looking towards the propeller.
Two propellers turn inward, when the left propeller is right-handed and the right one is left-handed.
1.6 Prop walk
Set the strength of the propeller walk. The direction is set by the parameter “propeller rotation”, see above.
The parameter is set relative to the ship default values (see also: propeller walk).
1.7 Ruder size
Set the ruder size to adjust the magnitude of the rudder force. The setting only effects the rudder force due to the speed through the water. To set the rudder force due to propeller wash, modify the “prop wash” parameter.
The parameter is set relative to the ship default values.
1.8 Prop wash
Adjust the strength of the rudder forces due to propeller wash.
The parameter is set relative to the ship default values.
1.9 Max. Rudder Angle
Set the maximum rudder deflection angle from 0° to either side. The “rudder range” is twice this value.
1.10 Steering Wheel Translation
Set the translation between steering wheel angle and rudder angle.
1.11 Moment of Intertia (Yaw)
Set the resistance of the ship body against an angular acceleration around the yaw axis.
1.12 Power Bow Thruster
Set the power of the bow thruster engine.
1.13 Wind Resistance
Set the ship wind resistance. The parameter modifies the resistance to crosswind and proportionally as well the resistance to headwind.
The value is set relative to the ship default values for cross- and headwinds.
1.14 Wind Center of Effort
The wind not only moves the ship along the wind direction but it can also turn the ship.
For this we look at the wind center of effort. This is the point at which the wind force acts upon the ship. The location of this point is approximately the centroid of the surface Aw exposed to the wind. (see figure below).
When the wind center of effort CE is located away from the center of gravity CG of the ship towards the bow, the bow is blown away from the wind (leeward) If the center of effort is located towards the stern, the bow is turned windwards.
With this parameter you set the longitudinal offset of the center of effort CEoffs,x relative to the center of gravity. Setting a positive value moves the center of the effort towards the bow.
1.15 Size of Lateral Plan
The lateral plan is the lateral projection of the underwater ship. This is the surface of the underwater ship you see when looking from the side. (see figure below).
The greater the area AUW of the lateral plan, the higher the ship will resist a lateral drift through the water.
The value is set relative to the ship default value. The default for a yacht with keel is much higher than for a motor boat.
1.16 Center of Lateral Resistance
When the ship is drifting sideways through the water, the ship underwater body will be exposed to a resistance force. Analog to the wind center of effort, the center of lateral resistance is the point where the resistance force is applied. The center of lateral resistance is approximately at the centroid of the lateral plan.
If the center of lateral resistance CLR is not at the center of gravity CG, a momentum will cause the bow to turn.
You can set the longitudinal offset CLRoffs,x of the center of lateral resistance relative to the center of gravity. Setting a positive value will cause the bow to be pushed in the direction opposite to the drift.
Also the surface of the rudder is exposed to the water when drifting. The resistance of the rudder contributes to the momentum causing the ship to turn. When you modify the rudder size parameter, this will have an effect on the contribution and overall momentum.